Radio New Zealand National. 2015-10-01. 00:00-23:59.

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A 24-hour recording of Radio New Zealand National. The following rundown is sourced from the broadcaster’s website. Note some overseas/copyright restricted items may not appear in the supplied rundown:

01 October 2015

===12:04 AM. | All Night Programme===
=DESCRIPTION=

Including: 12:05 Music after Midnight; 12:30 One in Five (RNZ); 1:05 Discovery (BBC); 2:05 The Thursday Feature: Playing Favourites (RNZ); 3:05 The Madonna in the Suitcase, written and read by Huberta Hellendoorn (4 of 5, RNZ); 3:30 NZ Books (RNZ): 5:10 Witness (BBC)

===6:00 AM. | Morning Report===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand's three-hour breakfast news show with news and interviews, bulletins on the hour and half-hour

=AUDIO=

06:00
Top Stories for Thursday 1 October 2015
BODY:
Fonterra's chief executive freezes pay but farmers unimpressed, Second Serco prison under fire by Labour, New Zealand to receive more information on deportations, Tensions rise at the UN as Russia begins airstrikes in Syria, and Shell halts deepwater drilling plans for Otago-Southland coast
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 43'15"

06:06
Sports News for 1 October 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'20"

06:13
Taliban tighten grip on Kunduz
BODY:
The Taliban is tightening its grip on the Afghan city of Kunduz.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Taliban, Kunduz, Afghanistan
Duration: 3'38"

06:20
Pacific News for 1 October 2015
BODY:
Pacific News for 1 October 2015
Topics: Pacific
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'43"

06:23
Morning Rural News for 1 October 2015
BODY:
News from the rural and farming sector.
Topics: rural, farming
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'56"

06:28
Te Manu Korihi News for 1 October 2015
BODY:
It's hoped new research will reveal why Maori and Pasifika people are more likely to die following heart attacks; Te Wananga o Aotearoa's biannual Kapa Haka competition, Te Mata Wananga starts today; Maori artists and performers are to showcase nga karetao at a national puppet festival as part of efforts to revitalise the ancient art form.
Topics: te ao Maori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'44"

06:40
Federated Farmers Dairy says salary freeze right move
BODY:
Fonterra's chief executive has opted to have his pay frozen next year.
Topics: farming
Regions:
Tags: Fonterra, Dairy payout, Theo Spierings
Duration: 3'53"

06:44
Russia launches airstrikes in Syria
BODY:
Russia has carried out air strikes against what it says are Islamic State targets in Syria.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Islamic State, Syria, Russia
Duration: 3'54"

06:49
Businesses less pessimistic
BODY:
The ANZ Bank's latest business sentiment survey shows businesses are less pessimistic.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'59"

06:52
Pumpkin Patch confident it can turnaround decling sales
BODY:
The children's clothing retailer, Pumpkin Patch, says it will need money to revive the company to turnaround the ongoing decline in sales, especially online.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: Pumpkin Patch
Duration: 2'04"

06:54
Tougher tax rules come into effect today
BODY:
New rules aimed at taking some of the heat out of the Auckland housing market come into force today.
Topics: business, economy, housing
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: tax, Capital Gains Tax, Auckland housing market
Duration: 1'25"

06:58
Business profile - Spotlight on solar company
BODY:
A firm that may fly under the radar this week is the Christchurch-based solar lighting manufacturer - Solar Bright.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: Solar Bright
Duration: 2'20"

06:59
Morning markets for 1 October 2015
BODY:
Wall Street is up about 1 percent on hopes the commodities slump has run its course.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: markets
Duration: 58"

07:07
Sports News for 1 October 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'07"

07:11
Fonterra's chief executive freezes pay but farmers unimpressed
BODY:
The chief executive of Fonterra has asked for his multi-million dollar salary to be frozen this year as the co operative goes through major cost cuts and slashes hundreds of jobs.
Topics: farming, business
Regions:
Tags: Fonterra, Theo Spierings
Duration: 5'03"

07:16
Second Serco prison under fire by Labour
BODY:
A second Serco-run prison is under fire, with allegations that serious beatings go unreported and prisoners are in lock-down 23 hours a day.
Topics: life and society
Regions:
Tags: Serco, private prisons, prison conduct, Corrections
Duration: 7'04"

07:24
New Zealand to receive more information on deportations
BODY:
The Justice Minister Amy Adams says a new agreement with Australia will allow for a tougher new monitoring regime for serious criminals deported to New Zealand.
Topics: refugees and migrants
Regions:
Tags: Australia, deportation
Duration: 4'14"

07:28
Tensions rise at the UN as Russia begins airstrikes in Syria
BODY:
As the world's leaders meet at the United Nations in New York Russia has carried out air strikes against what it says are Islamic State targets in Syria.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Syria, Russia, Islamic State
Duration: 4'26"

07:36
Shell halts deepwater drilling plans for Otago-Southland coast
BODY:
The oil company Shell has halted plans for deepwater drilling off the Otago-Southland coast and is not saying when the exploration program may resume.
Topics: environment
Regions:
Tags: Deepwater Drilling, oil exploration, drilling
Duration: 4'01"

07:40
NZ trade envoy hopes Groser can salvage Atlanta TPP talks
BODY:
There's real doubt from some quarters over the prospect of a Trans-Pacific Partnership deal out of Atlanta.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: TPP, trade
Duration: 2'40"

07:42
Lawyer says trans-Tasman agreement may cut detention times
BODY:
The lawyer for a New Zealand woman in a Darwin detention centre thinks a new trans-Tasman agreement could provide valuable information to prevent people with little connection to New Zealand being deported here.
Topics: refugees and migrants
Regions:
Tags: deportation, TTA, Trans-Tasman Agreement, Australia
Duration: 3'46"

07:46
Action needs to follow Auckland housing affordability
BODY:
Auckland Council's chief economist says higher density housing and more efficient construction are crucial to solving the city's housing affordability crisis.
Topics: housing, economy, business
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: housing crisis, construction
Duration: 3'59"

07:52
All Black side to take on Georgia named
BODY:
The All Blacks have been hit by injuries in the build up to their Rugby World Cup match against Georgia in Cardiff on Saturday morning.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags: All Blacks, Rugby World Cup, RWC, RWC 2015
Duration: 4'06"

07:54
GCSB openness could signal plans to expand Cortex
BODY:
A cyber security expert believes there are signals the Government wants to expand its Cortex cyber security programme.
Topics: politics, law, technology
Regions:
Tags: GCSB, cyber sercurity, Cortex
Duration: 3'44"

08:07
Sports News for 1 October 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'49"

08:10
Fonterra chief's salary freeze slammed as PR stunt
BODY:
As we have been reporting this morning, Fonterra chief executive Theo Spierings has asked for his salary to be frozen.
Topics: farming, business
Regions:
Tags: Fonterra, Theo Spierings
Duration: 7'22"

08:18
Simon Marks on Russian strikes
BODY:
Russia claim to be targeting ISIS although the strikes have hit provinces including Homs and Hama which the French and the US say are dominated by rebels fighting the regime of Bashar al Assad.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Islamic State, Syria, Russia
Duration: 5'31"

08:24
Strains begin to surface in trans-Tasman relationship
BODY:
Australia is now moving to reconsider its crackdown on detaining and deporting New Zealanders as strains in the trans-Tasman relationship begin to surface.
Topics: politics, refugees and migrants
Regions:
Tags: Australia, deportation, detention centres
Duration: 6'26"

08:32
Markets Update for 1 October 2015
BODY:
A brief update of movements in the financial sector.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: markets
Duration: 41"

08:35
Auckand's Hato Petera Maori school could berestructured
BODY:
Auckand's Hato Petera Māori boarding school could be in for a major restructuring.
Topics: te ao Maori
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Hato Petera Maori boarding school
Duration: 3'37"

08:39
Banned book 'Into the River' wins publishing deal in US
BODY:
'Into the River', the first book to be banned in New Zealand in 20 years, will soon be available to readers in the United States and Canada.
Topics: books
Regions:
Tags: Into the River
Duration: 5'08"

08:44
Dunedin leaders call for end of secrecy on courthouse
BODY:
Dunedin leaders are calling on the justice minister to end the secrecy about quake-strengthening the city's heritage courthouse, saying the figures being used are unbelievable.
Topics:
Regions: Otago
Tags: heritage sites
Duration: 3'30"

08:49
Coastal group pushing for LIM change
BODY:
Christchurch residents are stunned to find details about houses being vulnerable to the sea will stay on LIM reports - potentially pushing down the value of their homes.
Topics: housing
Regions: Canterbury
Tags: housing
Duration: 2'35"

08:53
Banksy's Dismaland to close
BODY:
The Dismaland, "Bemusement Park" created by the artist Banksy will be dismantled and turned into shelters for migrants in Calais.
Topics: arts, refugees and migrants
Regions:
Tags: Dismaland, Banksy
Duration: 5'30"

=SHOW NOTES=

===9:06 AM. | Nine To Noon===
=DESCRIPTION=

Current affairs and topics of interest, including: 10:45 The Reading: Speed of Light, by Joy Cowley, read by Simon Leary (4 of 10, RNZ)

=AUDIO=

09:07
Fears proposed legislation will undermine pool safety
BODY:
Former Children's Commissioner Ian Hassall say new the Building (Pools) Amendment Act will erode the hard fought for protection for children and lead to more drownings. He says the act, in its current form is sloppy and full of loopholes and it waters down the protection measures that have reduced the number of toddlers drowning in home swimming pools.
Topics: life and society
Regions:
Tags: pools, children, safety
Duration: 14'58"

09:20
Shell abandons plans to drill for Arctic Oil
BODY:
The surprise decision by Shell to abandon its controversial plans to drill oil in the Alaskan arctic. The oil company had spent billions on exploration in the area, and had talked up the potential of the reserves in the area. Investigative Journalist, McKenzie Funk has been investigating the race for the arctic oil reserves. Nine to Noon spoke to him earlier this year about his book Windfall - which looks at how big companies like Shell have been profitting from climate change - with melting ice giving them access to new potential oil reserves.
Topics: environment
Regions:
Tags: Arctic
Duration: 13'03"

09:35
'Lost world of dinosaurs' uncovered in Alaska
BODY:
The skeletal remains of a new species of duck-billed dinosaur or hadrosaur, that could endure much colder temperatures than previously thought has been found in a remote part of Alaska,
EXTENDED BODY:
The skeletal remains of a new species of duck-billed dinosaur or hadrosaur, that could endure much colder temperatures than previously thought has been found in a remote part of Alaska, the northernmost dinosaurs are known to have ever lived. 'Ugrunaaluk kuukpikensis', which means ancient grazer of the Colville River was a 9 metre long herbivore that endured months of winter darkness and probably experienced snow.
A collaborative team between Florida State University and the University of Alaska Fairbanks has spent the last five years digging in a remote bone-bed of dinosaur remains in the Prince Creek Formation in Alaska.
Kathryn Ryan spoke to Gregory Erickson of Florida State University, who says the discovery 'challenges everything they thought about a dinosaur's physiology'.
Topics: science
Regions:
Tags: dinosaur, hadrosaur
Duration: 11'45"

09:50
UK correspondent, Matthew Parris
BODY:
The latest in UK news and politics.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: UK
Duration: 7'46"

09:51
UK correspondent Matthew Parris
BODY:
UK correspondent Matthew Parris, talks about Jeremy Corbyn, speed traps, and a suspended magistrate.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: UK
Duration: 7'46"

10:05
Alecky Blythe, writer of London Road
BODY:
The unlikely success of the musical 'London Road' - about the serial killer known as the Suffolk Strangler.
EXTENDED BODY:
The film, London Road has been descibed as an avante garde musical about the Ipswich serial murders and trial of Steve Wright between 2006 and 2008.
It was directed by Rufus Norris and written by Adam Cork and Alecky Blythe and is based on their National Theatre musical of the same title. Alecky Blythe's script is taken directly from her interviews with residents and those who worked on London Road during this time.
Alecky Blythe runs the London verbatim theatre company Recorded Delivery.
She spoke to Kathryn Ryan
Topics: arts, music, history
Regions:
Tags: London Road, Ipswich serial murders, Steve Wright
Duration: 29'21"

10:37
Standing My Ground: A voice of nature conservation
BODY:
By Alan F. Mark. Reviewed by Harry Broad, published by Otago University Press
Topics: books
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 5'53"

11:07
New Technology with Andy Linton
BODY:
Andy Linton has more than 30 years' experience in computer networking in the telecommunications industry and the academic sector. He currently spends his time teaching and helping build networks in developing regions around the world.
Topics: technology
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 18'54"

11:30
Parenting with Dorothy Waide
BODY:
For new parents those first few weeks can be terrifying. Trying to work out what your baby needs - is it hungry, tired, in pain... and why won't it go to sleep? Dorothy Waide trained as a Karitane nurse in the 70s and is now a much sought after baby sleep consultant. She has helped families around the world in those first few weeks - including Catherine Zeta Jones and Michael Douglas - who have written the foreword for her book You Simply Can't Spoil a Newborn.
EXTENDED BODY:
For new parents those first few weeks can be terrifying. Trying to work out what your baby needs – is it hungry, tired, in pain? And why won't it go to sleep? Dorothy Waide trained as a Karitane nurse in the 70s and is now a much sought after baby sleep consultant. She has helped families around the world in those first few weeks – including Catherine Zeta Jones and Michael Douglas – who have written the foreword for her book You Simply Can't Spoil a Newborn.
Dorothy Waide talks with Kathryn Ryan.
Topics: author interview
Regions:
Tags: parenting
Duration: 18'22"

11:49
TV review with Paul Casserly
BODY:
Paul been watching a 6 part Norwegian mini-series, "The Heavy Water War and enjoying the return of some underrated TV shows.
Topics: media
Regions:
Tags: television
Duration: 10'40"

=SHOW NOTES=

09:05 Warning that proposed legislation will undermine pool safety
The Former Children's Commissioner Ian Hassall say new the Building (Pools) Amendment Act will erode the hard fought for protection for children and lead to more drownings.
He says the act in its current form is sloppy and full of loopholes and waters down the protection measures that have reduced the number of toddlers drowning in home swimming pools.
09:20 Shell Abandons plans to drill for Arctic oil
The surprise decision by Shell to abandon its controversial plans to drill oil in the Alaskan arctic.
The oil company had spent billions on exploration in the area, and had talked up the potential of the reserves in the area. Investigative Journalist, McKenzie Funk has been investigating the race for the arctic oil reserves.
Nine to Noon spoke to him earlier this year about his book Windfall - which looks at how big companies like Shell have been profiting from climate change - with melting ice giving them access to new potential oil reserves.
09:30 'Lost world of dinosaurs' uncovered in Alaska
[gallery:1457]
The skeletal remains of a new species of duck-billed dinosaur or hadrosaur, that could endure much colder temperatures than previously thought has been found in a remote part of Alaska, the northernmost dinosaurs are known to have ever lived. 'Ugrunaaluk kuukpikensis', which means ancient grazer of the Colville River was a 9 metre long herbivore that endured months of winter darkness and probably experienced snow. A collaborative team between Florida State University and the University of Alaska Fairbanks has spent the last five years digging in a remote bone-bed of dinosaur remains in the Prince Creek Formation in Alaska. FSU Professor Gregory Erickson says the discovery 'challenges everything they thought about a dinosaur's physiology'.
[embed] https://youtu.be/YBVtUxpT34A
09:45 UK correspondent, Matthew Parris
10:05 Alecky Blythe, writer of London Road - a musical film about the Suffolk Strangler
The film, London Road has been descibed as an avante garde musical about the Ipswich serial murders and trial of Steve Wright between 2006 and 2008. It was directed by Rufus Norris and written by Adam Cork and Alecky Blythe and is based on their National Theatre musical of the same title. Alecky Blythe's script is taken directly from her interviews with residents and those who worked on London Road during this time.
Alecky Blythe runs the London verbatim theatre company Recorded Delivery.
[embed] https://youtu.be/I8NxcsH9o4A
10:30 Book Review: Standing My Ground: A voice of nature conservation by Alan F. Mark
Reviewed by Harry Broad, published by Otago University Press
10:45 The Reading: Speed Of Light by Joy Cowley read by Simon Leary (Part 4 of 10)
11:05 New Technology with Andy Linton
Andy Linton has more than 30 years' experience in computer networking in the telecommunications industry and the academic sector. He currently spends his time teaching and helping build networks in developing regions around the world.
[image:49092:third]
11:25 Parenting, Dorothy Wade
For new parents those first few weeks can be terrifying. Trying to work out what your baby needs - is it hungry, tired, in pain... and why won't it go to sleep? Dorothy Waide trained as a Karitane nurse in the 70s and is now a much sought after baby sleep consultant. She has helped families around the world in those first few weeks - including Catherine Zeta Jones and Michael Douglas - who have written the foreword for her book You Simply Can't Spoil a Newborn.
11:45 TV review with Paul Casserly

===Noon | Midday Report===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand news, followed by updates and reports until 1.00pm, including: 12:16 Business News 12:26 Sport 12:34 Rural News 12:43 Worldwatch

=AUDIO=

12:00
Midday News for 1 October 2015
BODY:
A preschooler faces deportation from Australia and Fonterra chief's salary in the spotlight.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 15'12"

12:17
House prices on the rise still
BODY:
The latest report on the housing market from the government valuer QV shows house prices rose nearly 13 percent in the year to September, which is the fastest rate since October 2007.
Topics: housing
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'05"

12:19
Super Fund and Infratil sell stakes in Z Energy
BODY:
Z Energy's two major shareholders, utilities investor Infratil and the New Zealand Superannuation fund have turned a tidy profit from selling their shares in the petrol retailer.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Z Energy, NZX
Duration: 1'22"

12:23
Stocks close higher at end of September quarter
BODY:
Wall Street has closed on a rosy note, as a turbulent September quarter comes to an end.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Wall Street
Duration: 21"

12:23
Midday Markets for 1 October 2015
BODY:
For the latest from the markets we're joined by Angus Marks at First NZ Capital
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: markets
Duration: 2'02"

12:25
Business briefs
BODY:
The mobile payments company, Pushpay Holdings, says it will exceed its merchant-growth target by more than 10 percent.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 40"

12:26
Midday Sports News for 1 October 2015
BODY:
The Highlanders winger Waisake Naholo makes his return to the All Blacks this weekend and everyones excited to see what impact he'll make.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'43"

12:35
Midday Rural News for 1 October 2015
BODY:
News from the rural and farming sectors.
Topics: rural, farming
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 7'29"

=SHOW NOTES=

===1:06 PM. | Jesse Mulligan, 1–4pm===
=DESCRIPTION=

An upbeat mix of the curious and the compelling, ranging from the stories of the day to the great questions of our time (RNZ)

=AUDIO=

13:09
First song
BODY:
Hollie Smith - 'Lady Dee'
Topics: music
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'09"

13:13
Hero Of The Sounds - Joe Heberley
BODY:
Marine hero Joe Heberley say he is still "in shock" after friends, family, and representatives from Coastguard Marlborough and Marlborough police surprised him with a presentation ceremony last week.
Topics: life and society
Regions: Marlborough
Tags: boaties, rescue, Tory Channel
Duration: 9'29"

13:23
Zombie Pageant - Jayme Moses
BODY:
The Zombie apocolypse is coming to New Plymouth - in the form a beauty pageant. 12 zombies will hit the stage as part of Halloween celebrations this month, parading their costumes on the catwalk and showcasing their talents. Make-up artist Jayme Moses is organising the event.
Topics: arts
Regions: Taranaki
Tags: makeup, zombies, beauty pageant, New Plymouth
Duration: 4'54"

13:28
Hot Tips In A Hot Housing Market - Jules Older
BODY:
Jules Older has negotiated the real estate market here, as well as in New York and San Francisco. He's written a guide book on how to rent and buy in the midst of a housing boom.
EXTENDED BODY:
Jules Older has negotiated the real estate market here, as well as in New York and San Francisco. He's written an e-book guide to renting and buying in the midst of a housing boom – Take Me Home: How to Rent or Buy in a Hot House Market.
Jules Older talks with Jesse Mulligan.
Topics: housing, author interview
Regions:
Tags: Jules Older
Duration: 12'24"

13:40
Favourite album
BODY:
Cowboy Junkies - Trinity Session.
Topics: music
Regions:
Tags: Cowboy Junkies
Duration: 19'18"

14:10
Possible Twitter Changes - Megan Whelan
BODY:
If Twitter was to drop - or at least extend - its 140 character limit, wouldn't that fundamentally change the nature of it, as a social medium? It's now being reported as a near-certainty in the Washington Post. Twitter has already ditched the 140-character limit on its direct messaging application and social media experts are picking the public side of Twitter will shortly follow suit. Radio New Zealand's social media editor, Megan Whelan, has been investigating.
Topics: internet, media
Regions:
Tags: Twitter
Duration: 6'50"

14:16
Roadmap - Kaka Point
BODY:
Kaka Point is a small, coastal community in the Catlins, half an hour south-east of Balclutha.
EXTENDED BODY:
Kaka Point is a small, coastal community in the Catlins, half an hour south-east of Balclutha.
Jesse Mulligan chats with some locals.
Topics: life and society, history
Regions: Otago
Tags: Kaka Point
Duration: 43'31"

15:08
The Expats - Chauncey Flay
BODY:
Our expat this week has traded the hustle and bustle of Auckland for the relaxed island vibes of Rarotonga.
Topics: life and society
Regions:
Tags: Rarotonga
Duration: 10'50"

15:19
Masterpieces - Tom Scott
BODY:
Policial satirist Tom Scott remembers his favourite election.
Topics: arts, politics
Regions:
Tags: Tom Scott, cartoons, satire
Duration: 18'29"

15:46
The Panel pre-show for 1 October 2015
BODY:
Your feedback, and a preview of the guests and topics on The Panel.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 12'33"

21:46
Too much salt
BODY:
We live in a high salt world, so how feasible is it in our current shopping environment to eat a low sodium diet
EXTENDED BODY:
By Alison Ballance
Since recording this interview about sodium in our diet I’ve become obsessed with reading food labels – and we’ll get back to those labels later. Sodium is a key ingredient in salt, and I’ve discovered, for instance, that 2 slices of bread contain almost one sixth of your daily recommended intake of sodium, while a single serving of baked beans contains nearly half.
It’s abundantly clear that we live in a high salt world – so how feasible is it to have a low sodium diet?
It’s exactly that question that master’s student Catherine Lofthouse at the University of Otago is trying to answer with a group of keen volunteers.
“We’re investigating what are the barriers and supports for people trying to lower their sodium intake and follow a low sodium diet,” says Catherine. “We’re also interested in finding out if someone goes on a low sodium diet, do they also find themselves making other dietary changes, for instance do they end up consuming more sugary or fatty products.”
Processed foods make up a significant proportion of modern diets, and public health physician Rachael McLean says that a lot of the sodium we eat is contained in these foods. “So we anticipate that it’s actually quite hard to lower your sodium intake if you eat like normal New Zealanders do” she says.
The World Health Organisation recommends that a healthy adult eats no more than 2 grams (or 2000 mg) of sodium a day; this is as much sodium as you get in 5 grams, or a teaspoon, of salt. Children should consume much less than this. The bad news is that the average New Zealander eats about 3.5 grams of sodium a day, which is 9 grams of salt – or about one and a half to two times what we should be eating each day.
Too much sodium is a health issue because it is strongly implicated in raising blood pressure, which leads to cardiovascular issues such as stroke and heart attack.
“The link between sodium and blood pressure is very, very strong” says Rachael.

She says there is also an association between high sodium intake and abnormal lining of blood vessels, while high sodium intake can also lead to kidney disease, and may possibly lead to osteoporosis as excreting lots of sodium also means excreting calcium.
So why the high levels of salt in processed foods? Salt takes water with it into products, so it makes foods seem juicier and makes them heavier. And people enjoy eating salty food.
Catherine’s study involves ten volunteers, such as Tanya Lyders. Tanya joined the study because her husband had had a stroke, and she is interested in eating more healthily. Although she thought they ate quite a healthy diet already she confesses that they have a busy lifestyle and ate quite a few processed foods as well as the occasional takeaway meal.
After an initial assessment Catherine provides the study volunteers with nutrition education and a useful handbook that she has developed. As well as weekly support meetings she supplies low sodium recipes that she has developed, provides web links to further low sodium recipes, recommends the use of Low Salt which contains two thirds less sodium, gives advice on reading food labels, suggests that people use a free phone app called Food Switch to help interpret food labels and find healthier alternatives, and recommends using other seasonings such as lemon juice, herbs and pepper to make up for the loss of salt. Tanya reports that she finds the Healthy Food Guide very useful.
Rachael says a useful trick is to simply not add salt during cooking, but leave people to add salt at the table, as this results in less salt being used.
Tanya says her biggest challenge has been getting her husband – who does much of the cooking in the household – on board.
“It’s also been a challenge to find low sodium alternatives – there is just so much sodium in food.”

She says they’ve gone back to cooking more unprocessed foods, and she has become a diligent reader of food labels as the amount of sodium can vary markedly between products.
Getting used to the change in taste has been “a huge issue” for both Tanya and her husband, as it takes 8-10 weeks for taste buds to readjust to lower sodium levels, but she reports that she is now appreciating the flavour of unsalted food.
Catherine, Rachael and Tanya all commented on the difficulty of reading food labels, which are printed in very small type. Tanya observed that some labels report sodium in grams while others use milligrams, which added to the difficulty.
“Catherine had provided me with a guide as to what is low, medium and high sodium,” says Tanya, “so I’m always trying to keep it below about 300 mg. But you have to add up all the component parts of the meal, so if you can manage to make it less than 500 mg of sodium you’re doing quite well.”

Rachael observes that a simple traffic light scheme would be much more user friendly, but adds we are unlikely to see such a scheme adopted any time soon.
Topics: science, health, food
Regions:
Tags: salt, sodium, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diet
Duration: 15'12"

=SHOW NOTES=

1:10 First song
Hollie Smith - 'Lady Dee'
1:15 Hero Of The Sounds - Joe Heberley
Marine hero Joe Heberley say he is still "in shock" after friends, family, and representatives from Coastguard Marlborough and Marlborough police surprised him with a presentation ceremony last week.
1:25 Zombie Pageant - Jayme Moses
The Zombie apocolypse is coming to New Plymouth - in the form a beauty pageant. 12 zombies will hit the stage as part of Halloween celebrations this month, parading their costumes on the catwalk and showcasing their talents. Make-up artist Jayme Moses is organising the event.
1:30 Hot Tips In A Hot Housing Market - Jules Older
Jules Older has negotiated the real estate market here as well as in New York and San Francisco. He's written a guide book on how to rent and buy in the midst of a housing boom.
1:40 Favourite album
Cowboy Junkies - Trinity Session
2:10 Possible Twitter Changes - Megan Whelan
If Twitter was to drop - or at least extend - its 140 character limit, wouldn't that fundamentally change the nature of it, as a social medium? It's now being reported as a near-certainty in the Washington Post. Twitter has already ditched the 140-character limit on its direct messaging application and social media experts are picking the public side of Twitter will shortly follow suit. Radio New Zealand's social media editor, Megan Whelan, has been investigating.
2:20 Roadmap - Kaka Point
Kaka Point is a small, coastal community in the Catlins, half an hour south-east of Balclutha.
3:10 The Expats - Chauncey Flay
Our expat this week has traded the hustle and bustle of Auckland for the relaxed island vibes of Rarotonga.
3:25 Masterpieces - Tom Scott
Policial satirist Tom Scott remembers his favourite election.
3:30 Our Changing World - Alison Ballance
Rachael McLean from the University of Otago has been investigating how much salt we eat, and the answer keeps coming back the same - too much. Alison Ballance joins Rachael and Master's student Catherine Lofthouse who is investigating how easy - or hard - it is for people in today's shopping environment to eat a low sodium diet, and talks with volunteer Tanya Lyders about her experience.
Stories from Our Changing World.
3:45 The Panel Pre-Show
What the world is talking about, with Jesse Mulligan, Jim Mora and Zoe George.

=PLAYLIST=

INTRO SONG:

ARTIST: HOLLIE SMITH
TITLE: LADY DEE
COMP: HOLLIE SMITH
ALBUM: LADY DEE
LABEL: WARNERS
FAVOURITE ALBUM:

ARTIST: COWBOY JUNKIES
TITLE: BLUE MOON
COMP: MARGO TIMMINS, MICHAEL TIMMINS, RICHARD RODGERS, LORENZ HART
ALBUM: THE TRINITY SESSION
LABEL: RCA / LATENT

ARTIST: COWBOY JUNKIES
TITLE: MISGUIDED ANGEL
COMP: MARGO TIMMINS, MICHAEL TIMMINS
ALBUM: THE TRINITY SESSION
LABEL: RCA / LATENT

ARTIST: COWBOY JUNKIES
TITLE: SWEET JANE
COMP: LOU REED
ALBUM: THE TRINITY SESSION
LABEL: RCA / LATENT

ARTIST: COWBOY JUNKIES
TITLE: IM SO LONESOME I COULD DIE
COMP: HANK WILLIAMS
ALBUM: THE TRINITY SESSION
LABEL:RCA / LATENT

ROADMAP

ARTIST: GRAHAM BRAZIER
TITLE: FRIEND
COMP:
ALBUM: TUWHARE
LABEL: UNIVERSAL

ARTIST: DON MCGLASHAN
TITLE: RAIN
COMP:
ALBUM: TUWHARE
LABEL: UNIVERSAL

ARTIST: GOLDENHORSE
TITLE: O AFRICA
COMP:
ALBUM: TUWHARE
LABEL: UNIVERSAL

===4:06 PM. | The Panel===
=DESCRIPTION=

An hour of discussion featuring a range of panellists from right along the opinion spectrum (RNZ)

=AUDIO=

15:46
The Panel pre-show for 1 October 2015
BODY:
Your feedback, and a preview of the guests and topics on The Panel.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 12'33"

16:03
The Panel with Beck Eleven and Kevin Milne (Part 1)
BODY:
What the Panelists Beck Eleven and Kevin Milne have been up to. Will the TPP be signed this week? What is the "bright-line test" and will it apply to you? US based Kiwi professor on haka petition.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 26'58"

16:06
The Panel with Beck Eleven and Kevin Milne (Part 2)
BODY:
Introverts and extroverts. Lots of feedback coming in about the haka story. What are TV shows not rating anymore? What the Panelists Beck Eleven and Kevin Milne have been thinking about. Huge mall opens in Auckland.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 23'34"

16:07
Panel Intro
BODY:
What the Panelists Beck Eleven and Kevin Milne have been up to.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 5'34"

16:12
The TPP agreement
BODY:
Will the TPP be signed this week?

Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'35"

16:15
New property tax starts today
BODY:
What is the "bright-line test" and will it apply to you?
Topics: politics, housing
Regions:
Tags: tax
Duration: 11'32"

16:15
Petition against US University team performing the Haka
BODY:
US based Kiwi professor on haka petition.
Topics: sport, te ao Maori
Regions:
Tags: haka
Duration: 6'58"

16:36
Interactive learning at the University of Chicago library
BODY:
Introverts and extroverts.
Topics: education
Regions:
Tags: USA, University of Chicago
Duration: 4'35"

16:40
Feedback on US haka pertition
BODY:
Lots of feedback coming in about the haka story.
Topics: sport, te ao Maori
Regions:
Tags: haka
Duration: 1'56"

16:43
TV show ratings
BODY:
What are TV shows not rating anymore?
Topics: media
Regions:
Tags: television
Duration: 10'08"

16:53
Panel says
BODY:
What the Panelists Beck Eleven and Kevin Milne have been thinking about.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 4'46"

16:58
New mall for Auckland
BODY:
Huge mall opens in Auckland
Topics: business
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: mall
Duration: 1'00"

=SHOW NOTES=

===5:00 PM. | Checkpoint===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand's two-hour news and current affairs programme

=AUDIO=

17:00
Checkpoint Top Stories for Thursday 1 October 2015
BODY:
Multiple failures that let murderer and child sex criminal Phillip Smith escape to Brazil and high profile maori women backing a visit by the American singer Chris Brown.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 16'17"

17:08
Phillip Smith's escape exposes big security gaps
BODY:
Investigators have found multiple failures by Corrections, Customs and others let murderer and child sex criminal Phillip Smith expose big security gaps and escape to Brazil.
Topics: crime, law
Regions:
Tags: Philip John Smith, Corrections, Customs
Duration: 3'03"

17:11
Prison boss admits shortcomings
BODY:
The investigators point out Phillip Smith's escape was a rare event. But Corrections Chief Executive is Ray Smith says they could have done so much better.
Topics: crime, law
Regions:
Tags: Philip John Smith, Corrections
Duration: 4'09"

17:15
Controversial American singer Chris Brown
BODY:
Controversial American singer Chris Brown has been endorsed by a line up of high profile Maori women including four Dames, a Lady and the former CEO of the Women's Refuge.
Topics: law
Regions:
Tags: Chris Brown, Women's Refuge, New Zealand Immigration
Duration: 4'37"

17:19
Preschooler facing deportation in Australia
BODY:
Legal experts say the New Zealand and Australian governments have a responsibility to help a preschooler facing deportation and hundreds of others in the same situation.
Topics: law, refugees and migrants
Regions:
Tags: Australia, immigration, deportation
Duration: 4'07"

17:33
Today's market update
BODY:
The latest report on the housing market from the government valuer, QV, shows prices are up nearly 13 percent in the year to September, the fastest rate in eight years.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: markets
Duration: 2'05"

17:35
Justice Minister on multiple failings around Smith's escape
BODY:
More now to the multiple failures by Corrections, Customs and others around murderer and child sex criminal Phillip Smith's escape to Brazil.
Topics: crime, law
Regions:
Tags: Philip John Smith, Corrections, Customs
Duration: 5'02"

17:40
Greenpeace protest at parliament costs tax payers $36.000
BODY:
A climate change protest on the roof of Parliament buildings has cost tax payers over 36 thousand dollars
Topics: politics, law
Regions:
Tags: Greenpeace, protest, climate change protest
Duration: 2'21"

17:43
More high-profile women come out in support of Chris Brown
BODY:
Four Dames, a Lady and a former head of the Women's Refuge have come out in support of the American singer Chris Brown visitig New Zealand.
Topics: music, law
Regions:
Tags: immigration, Chris Brown
Duration: 4'42"

17:47
Fatal crash with foreign driver under investigation
BODY:
A foreign driver who was killed along with two of his passengers had limited New Zealand driving experience and had been seen overtaking dangerously just minutes before the crash.
Topics: law
Regions: Otago
Tags: dangerous driving, foreign drivers
Duration: 4'29"

17:53
Calls to address a shortage of Maori midwives
BODY:
The National Māori Midwives Organisation says expecting wahine around the country are suffering due to a shortage of Māori midwives to care for them. Most of the three-thousand midwives in New Zealand are Pākehā, followed closely by immigrants, with only 260 midwives being Māori. Almost 13 thousand babies are born by Maori women each year. Te Manu Korihi reporter Leigh Marama McLachlan has the story.
Topics: te ao Maori
Regions:
Tags: Māori Midwives
Duration: 3'30"

17:56
Groser says some TPP movement on dairy, but not enough
BODY:
The Goverment is cautiously optimistic a deal to establish a Pacific-wide trade region can finally be wrapped up this week despite very little change to dairy access positions.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: TPP
Duration: 3'20"

18:07
Sports News for 1 October 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'23"

18:12
Smith escape reveals systemic failings - opposition parties
BODY:
The Green Party says the problems at the Corrections Department are far more widespread than those revealed in a new report into the escape to South America of murderer and paedophile Phillip Smith.
Topics: crime, law
Regions:
Tags: Philip John Smith, Corrections, The Green Party
Duration: 2'39"

18:14
Some contrition from protester fined for scaling Beehive
BODY:
One of the protesters convicted of scaling Parliament buildings in June says he's sorry their action has cost the tax payer more than 36-thousand dollars.
Topics: politics, economy
Regions:
Tags: protest, Greenpeace
Duration: 3'40"

18:17
Caution urged over new parole-for-deportees law.
BODY:
The Human Rights Foundation says a new law imposing parole on offenders deported back to New Zealand from Australia, must not pile extra punishment on people who've already served their time.
Topics: crime, law
Regions:
Tags: Human Rights Foundation, parolees, parole, deportation, Australia
Duration: 3'21"

18:21
Fence-fort fight ends in favour of harbour view
BODY:
When retired manufacturing engineer Peter Aitchison goes to look out over Wellington harbour from his home, he sees a four-metre-high fence instead.
Topics: housing
Regions: Wellington Region
Tags: four-metre-high fence, property value
Duration: 4'20"

18:26
Wrong drugs ordered for Oklahoma execution
BODY:
The Governor of Oklahoma has halted the execution of a death row inmate at the last minute, after realising the state had taken delivery of the wrong kind of drugs for his killing.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: USA, death penalty
Duration: 2'21"

18:34
Bright-line test kicks in to try to ease house price pressure
BODY:
Gains on property sales are being targeted from today with the new bright-line test coming into force.
Topics: politics, law, housing, economy
Regions:
Tags: tax, property
Duration: 4'39"

18:39
Retired Australian Admiral warns of climate change threats
BODY:
A retired Australian admiral is warning that his country's Defence Force is failing to deal with the security threats and other consequences of climate change.
Topics: climate, environment
Regions:
Tags: Australia, Defence, climate change
Duration: 4'19"

18:47
Warning Super El Nino to bring suffering to millions in Pacific
BODY:
Oxfam has issued a dire warning about risks to lives and livelihoods across the Pacific from the Super El Nino which has already brought drought and severe heat to Papua New Guinea.
Topics: climate, Pacific
Regions:
Tags: Oxfam, Papua New Guinea, Super El Nino, El Nino
Duration: 4'09"

18:51
Te Manu Korihi News for 1 October 2015
BODY:
The National Maori Midwives Organisation says expecting wahine around the country are suffering due to a shortage of Maori midwives to care for them; The government's creation of a sanctuary covering more than 6-hundred thousand kilometres in the Kermadec Islands has raised concerns over the lack of consultation with Te Ohu Kaimoana.
Topics: te ao Maori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'15"

=SHOW NOTES=

===7:06 PM. | Nights===
=DESCRIPTION=

Entertainment and information, including: 7:30 At the Movies

=SHOW NOTES=

=AUDIO=

19:30
At The Movies for 1 October 2015
BODY:
On At The Movies, Simon Morris looks at two contrasting streets – London Road, based on the ground-breaking, stage-show musical, and Tangerine – life on the hustle on Hollywood Boulevard. He also reviews the new Kiwi hiphop musical, Born To Dance, and the feelgood comedy The Intern, starring Robert de Niro and Anne Hathaway.
EXTENDED BODY:
On At The Movies, Simon Morris looks at two contrasting streets – London Road, based on the ground-breaking, stage-show musical, and Tangerine – life on the hustle on Hollywood Boulevard. He also reviews the new Kiwi hiphop musical, Born To Dance, and the feelgood comedy The Intern, starring Robert de Niro and Anne Hathaway.
Topics: arts
Regions:
Tags: film
Duration: 23'26"

7:30 At the Movies with Simon Morris: Current film releases and film related topics (RNZ) 8:13 Windows on the World: International public radio features and documentaries 9:06 Our Changing World

=SHOW NOTES=

=AUDIO=

21:10
Planning for a pandemic
BODY:
The Great Barrier Island community discusses the frightening prospect that they could be the sole survivors after a global flu pandemic.
EXTENDED BODY:
Recently the community on Great Barrier Island came together to discuss a frightening prospect – what would happen if a pandemic wiped out the world’s population and left the inhabitants of the island as the sole survivors?
This question was posed in a panel discussion called No Barriers – Small Island, Big Ideas – Exploring Pandemics, hosted by the Great Barrier Island Branch of Awana Rural Women. The scenario was simple but chilling; a novel Type A influenza virus, called Mortenza, develops in a small village on the other side of the world and quickly spreads across the globe, killing everyone it infects. Soon, the 900 people on the island are the only ones left alive.
On the panel was Lance Jennings, a clinical virologist at Canterbury District Health Board and the director of New Zealand’s National Measles Laboratory for the World Health Organisation: WHO. He says that a pandemic like Mortenza is a realistic prospect.
There is always the possibility that a novel virus… could evolve at any time.
Lance Jennings, Canterbury District Health Board

Lance Jennings points to the ability of the influenza virus to evolve across the species barrier, allowing it to be transmitted from its animal host to humans, as one reason for concern. An example is the avian influenza H7N9 virus in southern China, which causes serious respiratory illness in humans and kills approximately 20 per cent of those it infects. At present, transmission between people is rare but as the virus evolves, this could change.
One key message from Lance and the rest of the panel is pandemic preparedness; having a plan in place to deal with an outbreak. New Zealand has the National Health Emergency Plan which includes the New Zealand Influenza Pandemic Plan: A Framework for Action. Topics range from planning for individual and community recovery in an emergency event to disability issues and ethical values in a pandemic situation.
Should an outbreak occur, the Ministry of Health will take the lead role in a response that will involve the whole of Government. But the Emergency Plan is specifically designed to devolve downward so all local bodies and District Health Boards will be able to continue to implement it if central government collapses. And like a virus, the plan frequently adapts to changing circumstances.
The National Plan was used in 2003 to respond to SARS and then subsequently for the H5N1 avian flu outbreak. It’s an evolutionary document.

New Zealand’s ethnically diverse population means that in the event of a pandemic there will likely be a range of responses to sickness, death and the disposal of bodies. Some may involve close and intimate contact with the infected, allowing the further transmission of the virus and tragically, potentially helping it to kill entire family groups. But there are plans to deal with this, too. Ongoing dialogue with community leaders educates all parties to potential risks, while more pragmatically, consultation with funeral directors hopefully means that an adequate supply of body bags will be available and the necessary protocols will be in place to deal with the dead.
A second key to combating a killer virus is the continuing emphasis on the importance of annual flu vaccinations and promoting uptake among those most vulnerable. According to Lance Jennings this not only improves the health of those individuals but also builds capacity to effectively distribute vaccines and improves communications lines within both the community and the media that could prove to be critical in a pandemic.
But unlike your favourite disaster movie, there is no possibility of a super vaccine being quickly developed. Current technology requires first a specific virus to respond to. Control reagents are then developed and should they prove to be successful, it may then be possible to manufacture the vaccine in large amounts. Unfortunately, the likely time frame for this is at least four to six months - too slow for a swift and unusually deadly virus like Mortenza.
But although a Mortenza-like illness, which kills everyone it infects, is possible, is it really likely to occur?
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 killed between 20-40 million people or roughly 3 per cent of the population. The Great Plague in Europe and Central Asia possibly accounted for around a third of the world's population. But while we have yet to see anything as deadly as Mortenza, Lance Jennings says conditions around the planet mean that a virus like this has to be planned for. He cites contributory factors like increasing population growth and the dense concentration of people in large cities as well as the vast increase in both chicken and pig production. In short, a perfect storm scenario for the creation of the kind of deadly diseases.
Viruses are getting agitated. We’re starting to see lots of novel Influenza A viruses emerging … there are things going on that we don’t understand at this point in time … I think it is inevitable that we will certainly have more emergence of these viruses and the chances for one devastating virus occurring must be in our planning.

In the meantime, planning, preparation and public discussion are the best forms of prevention. And if a pandemic does occur, trying to take refuge on Great Barrier Island may not be the best plan. It is highly unlikely that the virus would not reach the island. And almost everyone there owns a gun.
Topics: health, science
Regions:
Tags: flu pandemic, disaster planning
Duration: 13'12"

21:20
Moving animals for conservation
BODY:
There have been hundreds of relocations of animals for conservation reasons in New Zealand and Australia - so what lessons have we learnt
EXTENDED BODY:
By Alison Ballance
“There are really two reasons for moving animals around. One is because you’re concerned about the species itself, as it’s got down to very low numbers or just one population. The other is for ecological restoration reasons, for example a sanctuary that you want to restore to the way it was and a big part of that is bringing back the species.”
Doug Armstrong, reintroduction biologist, Massey University

From tuatara to giant weta and robins, species are on the move around New Zealand, and they have been since the early 1960s, when the late Don Merton began moving saddlebacks between islands.
This was a technique that the early conservationist Richard Henry pioneered in Fiordland in the late 1890s, when he moved hundreds of kakapo and kiwi to Resolution Island in an ultimately doomed attempt to save them from the ravages of introduced stoats on mainland New Zealand.
Advances in Reintroduction Biology of Australian and New Zealand Fauna is a recent publication that reviews what’s been happening both here and in Australia. While lots of this information exists in scientific papers, the book’s authors, including Massey University’s Doug Armstrong and Kate Richardson, wanted to make it available in one easy-to-access volume. The book’s chapters are written by different people, and include case studies and useful advice.
Topics: science, environment, books
Regions:
Tags: animals, wildlife, conservation, translocation, reintroductions, islands, robins
Duration: 13'40"

21:36
Offsetting biodiversity losses
BODY:
Environmental Defence Society policy analyst Marie Brown discusses the challenge of how development projects can offset biodiversity losses.
EXTENDED BODY:
The way we are managing development is likely locking in decline of biodiversity at the moment.
Marie Brown, EDS

Biodiversity continues to decline in New Zealand and worldwide. One of the methods governments and companies use to mitigate impacts from development projects is the offsetting of biodiversity losses in one area with biodiversity gains in another, but the Environmental Defence Society is calling for stronger national policies to prevent ongoing decline.
EDS policy analyst Marie Brown says the purpose of biodiversity offsets is to address damage to ecosystems in a development context, with the overall aim of no net losses of biological diversity.
“What that amounts to in practice is that a developer agrees to a compensation kind of conservation programme and the nature and scale of that would be broadly equivalent to what’s been lost in the development process.”
Trade-offs are regularly negotiated as part of the resource consent application process under the Resource Management Act, but biodiversity offsets differ in that they aim for no net loss, and ideally even net gain.
Payment can be used as part of the biodiversity offset process, but can be “quite risky because what you’re doing is you’re converting natural capital, which you are going to lose anyway, into financial capital, and the key thing is to make sure it gets converted back again, not just to natural capital but to something that is similar in value”.
Marie Brown is a co-author of the recent book Vanishing Nature, and here she discusses the challenges in valuing nature.
Sometimes, she says, a financial offset can lead to a better outcome. “If the proponent of the development is not keen, willing or able to engage with a conservation project, an equivalent project can be costed and another organisation or agency identified to carry it out. Then it becomes a cheque writing exercise. However, the gains at the end are more secure, so it’s not always a bad idea.”
However, in some instances she says it can become “cash for damage”.
It’s simply factored in as a compliance cost within the development and people forget about the point of offsets being the very final option of the mitigation hierarchy where avoidance is always your best bet.

In New Zealand, biodiversity offsets are included in several regional policy statements and plans, but are not mandatory, and the EDS is calling for statutory guidance and more clarity on parameters that proponents of development projects have to meet.
Marie Brown says there are several examples of companies that take their responsibilities seriously but that does not mean certain success, “not because of lack of effort but because ecological timelines are very different to human timelines”.
“Overall an enhanced policy context will be a really useful operating minimum for the good guys and it will give the bad guys a goal, and a really crucial goal.”
Compliance and enforcement are also important issues. During her PhD research, Marie Brown found that less than half of the ecological conditions in resource consents were met. “A lot of energy goes into the front part of the process … but as soon as the first sod is turned, there’s an awful lot fewer people watching, and that means that the loss to nature is sometimes silent”.
Topics: environment, law
Regions:
Tags: biodiversity offsets, biodiversity, Resource Management Act, development
Duration: 14'40"

21:46
Too much salt
BODY:
We live in a high salt world, so how feasible is it in our current shopping environment to eat a low sodium diet
EXTENDED BODY:
By Alison Ballance
Since recording this interview about sodium in our diet I’ve become obsessed with reading food labels – and we’ll get back to those labels later. Sodium is a key ingredient in salt, and I’ve discovered, for instance, that 2 slices of bread contain almost one sixth of your daily recommended intake of sodium, while a single serving of baked beans contains nearly half.
It’s abundantly clear that we live in a high salt world – so how feasible is it to have a low sodium diet?
It’s exactly that question that master’s student Catherine Lofthouse at the University of Otago is trying to answer with a group of keen volunteers.
“We’re investigating what are the barriers and supports for people trying to lower their sodium intake and follow a low sodium diet,” says Catherine. “We’re also interested in finding out if someone goes on a low sodium diet, do they also find themselves making other dietary changes, for instance do they end up consuming more sugary or fatty products.”
Processed foods make up a significant proportion of modern diets, and public health physician Rachael McLean says that a lot of the sodium we eat is contained in these foods. “So we anticipate that it’s actually quite hard to lower your sodium intake if you eat like normal New Zealanders do” she says.
The World Health Organisation recommends that a healthy adult eats no more than 2 grams (or 2000 mg) of sodium a day; this is as much sodium as you get in 5 grams, or a teaspoon, of salt. Children should consume much less than this. The bad news is that the average New Zealander eats about 3.5 grams of sodium a day, which is 9 grams of salt – or about one and a half to two times what we should be eating each day.
Too much sodium is a health issue because it is strongly implicated in raising blood pressure, which leads to cardiovascular issues such as stroke and heart attack.
“The link between sodium and blood pressure is very, very strong” says Rachael.

She says there is also an association between high sodium intake and abnormal lining of blood vessels, while high sodium intake can also lead to kidney disease, and may possibly lead to osteoporosis as excreting lots of sodium also means excreting calcium.
So why the high levels of salt in processed foods? Salt takes water with it into products, so it makes foods seem juicier and makes them heavier. And people enjoy eating salty food.
Catherine’s study involves ten volunteers, such as Tanya Lyders. Tanya joined the study because her husband had had a stroke, and she is interested in eating more healthily. Although she thought they ate quite a healthy diet already she confesses that they have a busy lifestyle and ate quite a few processed foods as well as the occasional takeaway meal.
After an initial assessment Catherine provides the study volunteers with nutrition education and a useful handbook that she has developed. As well as weekly support meetings she supplies low sodium recipes that she has developed, provides web links to further low sodium recipes, recommends the use of Low Salt which contains two thirds less sodium, gives advice on reading food labels, suggests that people use a free phone app called Food Switch to help interpret food labels and find healthier alternatives, and recommends using other seasonings such as lemon juice, herbs and pepper to make up for the loss of salt. Tanya reports that she finds the Healthy Food Guide very useful.
Rachael says a useful trick is to simply not add salt during cooking, but leave people to add salt at the table, as this results in less salt being used.
Tanya says her biggest challenge has been getting her husband – who does much of the cooking in the household – on board.
“It’s also been a challenge to find low sodium alternatives – there is just so much sodium in food.”

She says they’ve gone back to cooking more unprocessed foods, and she has become a diligent reader of food labels as the amount of sodium can vary markedly between products.
Getting used to the change in taste has been “a huge issue” for both Tanya and her husband, as it takes 8-10 weeks for taste buds to readjust to lower sodium levels, but she reports that she is now appreciating the flavour of unsalted food.
Catherine, Rachael and Tanya all commented on the difficulty of reading food labels, which are printed in very small type. Tanya observed that some labels report sodium in grams while others use milligrams, which added to the difficulty.
“Catherine had provided me with a guide as to what is low, medium and high sodium,” says Tanya, “so I’m always trying to keep it below about 300 mg. But you have to add up all the component parts of the meal, so if you can manage to make it less than 500 mg of sodium you’re doing quite well.”

Rachael observes that a simple traffic light scheme would be much more user friendly, but adds we are unlikely to see such a scheme adopted any time soon.
Topics: science, health, food
Regions:
Tags: salt, sodium, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diet
Duration: 15'12"

21:50
Kermadec region becomes an open ocean sanctuary
BODY:
This week, the government announced the creation of the Kermadec ocean sanctuary, which covers 620,000 square kilometres and bans mining, prospecting and fishing.
EXTENDED BODY:
By Alison Ballance
“The Kermadec area is a natural highway and connector between tropical and temperate waters and that really is what makes it so special.”
Bronwen Golder, Pew Global Ocean Legacy - Kermadecs

A 620,000 square kilometre area of ocean around the subtropical Kermadec Islands has just been declared an ocean sanctuary. When it comes into effect in 2016 the new marine protected area will become the first in New Zealand to go beyond our 12 nautical mile territorial waters out to the 200 nautical mile boundary of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). It will be New Zealand’s largest marine reserve. Fishing, prospecting and mining will be banned in this no-take marine reserve. It brings the total number of marine reserves in New Zealand to 44.
Under the Convention on Biological Diversity, New Zealand committed to having 10 per cent of its coastal and marine areas conserved by 2020. New Zealand currently has 9.7 per cent of its territorial sea fully protected, but no full protection in our EEZ; the Kermadec Ocean Sanctuary means 15 per cent of New Zealand’s ocean environment will be fully protected.
The announcement, made by Prime Minister John Key at the United Nations in New York earlier this week, follows more than five years of lobbying by a consortium of conservation organisations, spearheaded by Pew Charitable Trust’s Global Ocean Legacy project. The Global Ocean Legacy project has been working around the world for a number of years to encourage governments to ‘establish the world’s first generation of great marine parks by securing the designation of large, fully protected reserves’.
The Kermadec ocean sanctuary adds to the existing Kermadec marine reserve, which was established in 1990 and includes 7500 square kilometres of territorial sea around the five islands: Raoul, Macauley, Cheeseman, Curtis and L’Esperance.
Under the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Protected Areas classification system the Kermadec Ocean Sanctuary will have the highest level of protection: category I – strict nature reserve/wilderness area.
The Kermadec area is one of the world’s most pristine ocean areas. It includes the world’s longest chain of underwater volcanoes and the world’s second deepest ocean trench at over 10 kilometres – deeper than Mount Everest is tall. Its waters are also home to six million seabirds of 39 different species, over 150 species of fish, 35 species of whales and dolphins, three species of sea turtles – all endangered – and many other marine species like corals, shellfish and crabs unique to this area. The region also provides an important migration path for species crossing the Pacific, such as humpback whales and great white sharks.
Bronwen Golder has been leading the Global Ocean Legacy - Kermadec project. “You see subtropical and temperate waters coming together here, and you get a mix of biodiversity from those different ocean realms,” says Bronwen.
Earlier this year Our Changing World's Veronika Meduna spoke with Pew's Matt Rand about global ocean protection.
Our Changing World and the Kermadecs
We have had a long standing interest in the Kermadec Islands and surrounding ocean. In 2011 Alison Ballance took part in Auckland Museum’s Kermadec Biodiscovery Expedition. You can find links to the stories that resulted from that expedition, along with other stories, below.
Fish collecting in rockpools
Raoul Island Vegetation
Insect Collecting on Raoul Island
Kermadec Volcanic Arc
Weeds and Vegetation Plots on Raoul Island
Macauley, Cheeseman and L'Esperance Islands
Kermadec Marine Invertebrates
Fish science at the Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Pumice Mystery 2012
Kermadec Whales and Dolphins 2012
Supergiant Amphipods from the Kermadec Trench 2012
Deep-sea snailfish from the Kermadec Trench 2012
An expedition to tag migrating humpback whales is currently at the Kermadecs. Whales and calves migrating south from breeding grounds in the tropics pass Raoul Island at this time of year, but team leader Rochelle Constantine from the University of Auckland says we don’t know which population these whales are part of, where they have been in the tropics, and where in Antarctic waters they are heading to feed.
Ocean sanctuaries around the world
The Kermadec Ocean Sanctuary joins a growing number of large open ocean marine protected areas. These marine protected areas range from fully protected marine reserves through to multi-use parks that allow various kinds of fishing.
New Caledonia’s Natural Park of the Coral Sea is a multi-use marine park that covers 1.3 million square kilometres in the Pacific, encompassing the entire EEZ of New Caledonia..
Australia’s Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve was announced in 2012 and covers 989,842 square kilometres. Just over half will be zoned as a no-take Marine National Park.
The Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument is managed by the United States. It lies in the Central Pacific Ocean and covers seven different areas. The monument includes territorial waters around Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island, Palmyra Atoll, Kingman Reef, and the entire EEZ of Wake and Johnston Atolls. It covers an area of 1.27 million square kilometres. There is some provision for limited customary fishing
The United States’ Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument around the northwestern Hawaiian islands covers 362,073 square kilometres.
In 2010 the Chagos Archipelago, a UK Overseas Territory in the central Indian Ocean, was designated as a no-take marine reserve of more than 640,000 square kilometres.
In 2012 a one million square kilometre Marine Protected Area was declared around the UK Overseas Territory of South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands, in the southern Atlantic Ocean; it includes over 20,000 square kilometres of no-fishing zones.
In 2014, the government of Palau announced at the United Nations that it intends to create a national marine sanctuary would make Palau the first country to declare the waters of its entire exclusive economic zone a marine protected area. The sanctuary will include a fully protected ‘no take’ zone of 500,000 square kilometres, which would create one of the largest fully protected marine reserves in the world.
In March 2015 the British Government announced its intention to create a marine reserve around the Pacific Ocean islands of Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno islands. This marine reserve will cover 834,334 square kilometres and be the world's largest fully protected marine reserve.
The community on Easter Island, which is part of Chile, is also in discussion about creating a 720,000 square kilometre marine park around the island.
A number of these and other large ocean marine protected area initiatives were announced on 5 October at the Our Ocean conference in Chile.
Topics: environment
Regions:
Tags: Kermadec Islands, Pew Global Ocean Legacy project, marine protected area, marine reserves
Duration: 4'18"

9:06 Our Changing World: Science and environment news from NZ and the world (RNZ)

=AUDIO=

19:14
The future of cycling
BODY:
Bryan speaks to delegates at this Waikato University organised event on the future of pedal power.
EXTENDED BODY:
Bryan Crump heads to a Waikato University event on the future of pedal power. From somewhere underneath the Cambridge Velodrome, he chats with Ashley Burgess from the cycle support group WORD and Dr Mark Falcous from Otago University about the many ways to ride a bike (as many as there are ways to drive a car!).

Topics: transport
Regions: Waikato
Tags: cycling, bicycles, Waikato University.
Duration: 19'26"

20:42
Cultural Ambassador: Fergus Barrowman
BODY:
Brings the new jazz releases. Including albums from Norman Meehan, Hannah Griffin, Hayden Chisholm (Small Holes in the Silence) the Stefano Battaglia Trio, and Cecile McLorin Salvant.
Topics: music, arts
Regions:
Tags: jazz, poetry, Stefano Battaglia Trio, Cecile McLorin Salvant.
Duration: 17'42"

20:59
Conundrum Clue 7.
BODY:
Listen in tomorrow night for the answer
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 22"

21:59
Conundrum Clue 8.
BODY:
Listen in tomorrow night for the answer
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 33"

=SHOW NOTES=

===10:00 PM. | Late Edition===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand news, including Dateline Pacific and the day's best interviews from Radio New Zealand National

===11:06 PM. | Music 101===
=DESCRIPTION=

Music, interviews, live performances, behind the scenes, industry issues, career profiles, new, back catalogue, undiscovered, greatest hits, tall tales - with a focus on NZ (RNZ)

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Request information

Year 2015

Reference number 274470

Media type AUDIO

Collection Sound Collection

Ngā Taonga Korero Collection

Credits RNZ Collection
Radio New Zealand National, Broadcaster

Duration 24:00:00

Date 01 Oct 2015

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